Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Let It Shine: The 6,000-Year Story of Solar Energy

_Let It Shine:  The 6,000-Year Story of Solar Energy_ by John Perlin
Novato, CA:  New World Library, 2013
ISBN 978-1-60868-132-7

(xi)  The authoritative global network REN21 (Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century) reports that in 2012, one-fifth of the world’s electricity and one-sixth of the world’s total delivered energy was renewable.  Half the world’s new electricity-generating capacity added each year since 2008 has been renewable, and so is one-fourth of global and one-third of European generating capacity.  Excluding big hydroelectric dams, modern renewable power (chiefly wind and solar) adds more than 80 billion watts of capacity each year and receives a quarter trillion dollars of annual private investment, and in 2011 invested its trillionth dollar since 2004 - all despite subsidies generally smaller than what its nonrenewable competitors get.

(xix)  Twenty-five hundred years ago, for example, the sun heated every house in most Greek cities.  

(xx)  And as electricity began to power cities, the first photovoltaic array was installed on a New York City rooftop in 1884.

(5) The first account of the use of the gnomon for building comes from the Zhou dynasty, which was established sometime before the twelfth century BCE.  Zhou government officials considered proper orientation too important to be left to chance, and so they instructed builders to establish the cardinal points of the compass for exact siting.  The book _Zhouli_, which contained the rituals and rules established by the dynasty, explained how this would be accomplished.  Builders first had to determine when the equinoxes and solstices occurred, which could be pinpointed by studying the shadows cast by the gnomon.  The longest and shortest shadows of the year would mark the winter solstice and summer solstice, respectively.  When the shadow cast was half as long as the two solstice shadows, the observer would know that one of the two equinoxes had arrived.  At either equinox, the shadow cast by the rising sun would point west, and the shadow cast by the setting sun would point east.  Taking note of where the noon shadow fell, the observer would learn where true north and south lay.

(13)  Socrates according to Xenophon in the Memorabilia:  “Now in houses with a southern orientation, the sun’s rays penetrate into the porticoes [covered porches,] but in summer the path of the sun is right over our heads and above the roof, so we have shade…  To put it succinctly, the house in which the owner can find a pleasant retreat in all seasons… is at once the most useful and the most beautiful.”

[Soc:  "Do you admit that any one purposing to build a perfect house will plan to make it at once as pleasant and as useful to live in as possible?" and that point being admitted, the next question would be:
"It is pleasant to have one's house cool in summer and warm in winter, is it not?" and this proposition also having obtained assent, "Now, supposing a house to have a southern aspect, sunshine during winter will steal in under the verandah, but in summer, when the sun traverses a path right over our heads, the roof will afford an agreeable shade, will it not? If, then, such an arrangement is desirable, the southern side of a house should be built higher to catch the rays of the winter sun, and the northern side lower to prevent the cold winds finding ingress; in a word, it is reasonable to suppose that the pleasantest and most beautiful dwelling place will be one in which the owner can at all seasons of the year find the pleasantest retreat, and stow away his goods with the greatest security."
(http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1177/1177-h/1177-h.htm)]

(13-14)  Aristotle:  “What type of housing are we to build for slaves and freemen, for women and men, for foreigners and citizens?… For well-being and health, the homestead should be airy in summer and sunny in winter.  A homestead possessing these qualities would be longer than it is deep:  and its main front would face south.”

(14)  People from neighboring towns participating in the break with Athens in 432 BCE moved to Olynthus for protection against Athenian retribution.  The increase in population forced the Olynthians to establish a new district, which its excavators called North Hill.  The latitude was approximately that of New York City and Chicago, and the temperature often dropped below freezing in winter.  Approximately twenty-five hundred people lived there.

North Hill was a planned community from the beginning.  starting from scratch, the settlers could more easily implement the principal ideas of solar architecture.  The town planners situated the new district of Olynthus atop a sweeping plateau and built the streets perpendicular to each other, just as the Chinese had, with the main streets running east-west.  In this way, all the houses on a street could be built with a southern exposure, assuring solar heating and cooling for all residents - in keeping with the democratic ethos of the period.

(15-16)  Olynthian builders usually constructed houses in a blocklong row simultaneously.  The typical dwelling had six or more rooms on the ground floor and probably as many on the upper floor.  These houses were usually a standard square shape and shared a common foundation, roof, and walls with the other houses of the block.  The north wall was made of adobe bricks, which kept out the cold north winds of winter.  If this wall had any window openings, they were few in number and were kept tightly shuttered during cold weather.

The main living rooms of a house faced a portico supported by wooden pillars running parallel to the south side of the building.  The portico led to an open-air courtyard averaging 320 square feet, which was separated from the street by a low wall.  The courtyard provided a place where the occupants could enjoy the outdoors with maximum privacy;  and sunlight, the home’s primary source of illumination and winter heat, entered the house through the courtyard.

The house’s earthen floors and adobe walls absorbed and retained much of the solar energy that came in through its window openings facing the courtyard.  In the evening, when the indoor air began to cool, the floors and walls released the stored solar heat and helped warm the house.  To prevent cold drafts from coming through the open portico into the house, some builders constructed a low above wall between the pillars of the portico, parallel to the south wall of the house, allowing for the warming rays of sun in winter, while shutting out the cold drafts below.

The Olynthian solar house design worked well in summer and winter.  When the summer sun was almost directly overhead - from about ten in the morning until two in the afternoon - the portico’s eave shaded the openings of the main rooms of the house from the sun’s harsh rays.  In addition, the closed walls and contiguous dwelling barred the entrance of the morning and afternoon sun into the east and west sides of the homes.

(20)  The Architect Edwin D Thatcher studied the solar-heating capability of rooms facing south to determine the feasibility of indoor nude sunbathing during the winter.  To simulate actual conditions, Thatcher relied on weather data for a climate similar to that of ancient Greece and western Turkey.  He found that a naked person sitting in the sunny part of such a room would be relatively comfortable on 67 percent of the days during the colder months of November through March. The room used for this study was not as well protected as an average Greek living room, however - and of course the residents of the latter would have been clothed most of the time.  It seems safe to say that for most of the winter the sun would have adequately heated the main rooms of a Greek solar-oriented home during the daytime.  When solar heat was insufficient, charcoal braziers could be lit.

(26)  Windows of glass or transparent stone were a radical innovation.  Colored glass had been used for decorative items for almost three thousand years, but the Romans were the first - in the first century CE - to use transparent materials to make windows that would let in light but keep out rain, snow, and cold.

(34)  Faventius and Palladius recommended an ingenious way to make the floor of a sun-heated winter dining room an ideal absorber of solar energy.  The technique had been invented earlier by the Greeks and passed on in the writing of Vitruvius.  A shallow pit was to be dug under the floor and filled with broken earthenware or other rubble, and atop this a mixture of dark sand, ashes, and lime was spread.  This formed a black floor covering that easily absorbed solar heat, especially during the afternoon.  The mass of rubble underneath stored large amounts of heat and released it later in the evening when the room temperature cooled.  Faventius assured village owners that such floors would stay warm during the dining hour and “will please your servants, even those who go barefoot."

(37)  Confucius, writing of life three thousand years ago, stated that every son who lived at home attached a bronze burning mirror (a fu-sui, later called a yang-sui) to his belt when he dressed for the day.  He would also attach a fire plow, a wooden tool that relied on friction to generate sparks for ignition.  On days when the sun shone, the boy would focus the solar rays onto wood and start the family fire;  on overcast days he would take out his fire plow and rub its wood stick back and forth in a wooden groove to do the same.  The yang-sui was as ubiquitous in early China as are matches or lighters today.

(39)  The Greeks used burning mirrors to light the flame that marked the beginning of their Olympic games.  Plutarch, the famous Greek biographer who wrote in the second century CE, stated that when barbarians sacked the Temple of Vesta - the temple tended by the Vestal Virgins at Delphi - and extinguished their sacred flame it had to be relit with the “pure unpolluted flame from the sun.”  With “concave vessels of brass” the holy women directed the rays of the sun onto “light and dry matter,” which was immediately ignited, and their flame burned anew.

(100)  The Flemish salt manufacturers, Cecil’s [Queen Elizabeth I’s chief economic adviser] men explained, built long, shallow, watertight troughs that opened to the sea.  When operators wanted to fill them, windmills opened the floodgates to let in the incoming tide.  Once enough seawater had run in, the gates were shut.  Then solar heat went to work on the water, which evaporated after several days in the sun.  Only salt remained.  Workers shoveled the salt out and more water was let in to repeat the process.  The English praised the solar saltworks as “a great help for the sparing of firewood."

(103)  In 1887, the amount of sun-made salt surpassed the quantity manufactured with coal.  Solar manufacture of salt had grown to the point that visitors to Syracuse [NY], looking down from a hill in the city, could see a wide and shallow valley all covered with brown wooden troughs open to the sun.

(108)  Many had warned of an impending fuel crisis - warnings largely ignored by the public.  But the devastating effects of a series of coal strikes around the turn of the century, culminating in a massive strike in the winter of 1902, threw “a new and lurid light on [these predictions,]… for many a home has been fireless and many a factory has closed its doors,” according to Harper’s Weekly.  Charles Pope, author of Solar Heat, one of the first books on solar energy, agreed:  “The year of 1902 has added an awful chapter to the history of our need of a new source of heat and power,” he wrote.

(124)  [St Louis’ Willsie Sun Power Company solar power plant in 1904] As the sun warmed the water it traveled to a boiler, where ammonia was heated to produce a high-pressure vapor that drove a 6-horsepower engine.  Through condensation the ammonia returned to its liquid state and flowed back to the boiler.  The water circulated back to the collectors in a separate cycle.

The plant ran on sunless days and at night as well, when an auxiliary boiler powered by conventional fuel took over.  Newspapers in Saint Louis and New York announced the success of this twenty-four-hours-a-day solar-powered generator.

(125)  The solar-heated water produced during daytime operation [of Needles, CA in 1908] flowed from the collectors into an insulated tank.  The amount of water needed at the time went on to the boiler;  the rest was held in reserve.  After dark, when a valve to the storage tank was opened, hot water flowed out and passed over the pipes containing sulfur dioxide, and the engine could continue working.  Willsie could rightly claim, "This is the first sun power plant… ever operated at night with solar heat collected during the day."

(130)  He [Frank Shuman] first built a 1-foot-square hot box with blackened tubes inside that held ether, a low-boiling-point liquid.  The solar-heated ether vapor drove a tiny engine, the kind that was commonly sold in toy stores at the time for a dollar.  Shuman tried using a similar collector to run an engine somewhat larger than the first and was able to produce 1/8 horsepower.
NB:  1/8 hp is about the power a person can put out.

(139)  The Meadi plant could operate twenty-four hours a day.  A large insulated tank, similar to the one used by Willsie and Boyle, held excess hot water for use at night or during overcast or rainy days.  This enabled the engine to drive a conventional irrigation pump at all hours and in all weather, further increasing the efficiency of the plant.

Shuman set up a public demonstration of his sun-driven engine in late 1912.  But the boiler reached temperatures too close to the melting point of the zinc pipes.  Consequently the metal began to sag until, according to one observer, the pipes “finally hung down limply like wet rags.”  The trial run and to be postponed while the zinc pipes were replaced with cast iron.

(139-141)  Shuman’s solar engine compared very favorably to a conventional coal-fed plant.  True, the solar plant still had an enormous ratio of collecting surface to horsepower produced - exceeding 200 square feet per horsepower.  And the purchase price, at eighty-two hundred dollars, was double that of a conventional plant [but had a payback period of 4 years with coal at $15-40/ton]
NB:  25 square feet for 1/8 horsepower

(189)  Estimates of the total number of installations made in the Miami area between 1935 and 1941 vary widely - from twenty-five thousand to sixty thousand.  More than half the Miami population used solar-heated water by 1941 and 80 percent of the new homes built in Miami between 1937 and 1941 were solar equipped.

(190)  The federal government purchased some of the largest solar-heating systems, putting them in the officers’ quarters at the giant naval air station in Opa-Loka, outside of Miami, as well as in the Edison and Dixie Court housing projects, which had a combined population of 530.  In 1941, solar water heaters outsold conventional units in Miami by two to one.

(221)  All houses should be directed toward the sun, all of humanity should live in sunlight - Bernhard Christoph Faust [1824]

(223)  All Buildings of Men Should Face towards the Midday Sun (Zur Sonne nach Mittag sollten alle Haüser der Menschen gerichtet seyn) [book title]

(223-224)  “The sole aim of life is the correct orientation of buildings to the midday sun.  Everything else fades compared to the sun and its benefits - to receive the sun in its greatest abundance, the most important gift that God gave to man and animal."

(229)  [1826] Bavaria’s most respected technologist, Anton Camerloher, the royal Bavarian engineer first class, learned of Faust’s solar building principles through [Gustav] Vorherr [state architect for Bavaria, head of the state-run school of building arts, and publisher of the Monthly Journal for Building and Land Improvement].  After submitting these strategies to rigorous scientific analysis, he declared them “well founded” and enthusiastically joined Vorherr in his fight for their implementation in construction throughout the region.  Camerloher’s opinion on the Faustian doctrine greatly influenced King Joseph Maximilian to mandate implementation of Faust’s teaching in the construction of all new public and communal buildings in Upper Bavaria.  Several years later the Bavarian government published the basics of Faust’s solar building principles with the intent of guaranteeing that “all districts, police, and building departments in the Isarkreis [Upper Bavaria] will give these architectural ideas special attention and support.”  Other German States, such as Hessen and Prussia, followed suit.

(231)  Two municipalities lost to fire were reconstructed in line with Faust’s tenets - Schwaboisen in Bavaria and Palotsay in Hungary.

(235)  In 2009 the United Nations chose La Chau-de-Fonds as a World Heritage site.  The selection was made, according to the World Heritage Site web page, because of the “‘rationalist’ principles… adopted[,] which addressed the relationship between living conditions and ‘health.’  A town plan was developed in 1835 designed by one of Pestalozzi’s pupils (Charles-Henri Junod) and inspired by an ideal town called ‘Sonnenstadt,’ planned in 1824 by a Dr. Bernhard Christoph Faust.  Features included having most houses facing onto small gardens receiving the midday sun.”

This monument to Faust’s dream resonates with his exclamation written more than 150 years before the city’s selection as a World Heritage Site:  “Oh people, face your houses toward the midday sun to give yourselves and your children and their children until the tenth generation the warmth, life, power, joy and blessings of the sun."

(248)  One study cited by the panel [of the League of Nations] showed that a building which opened to the north needed 17 percent more heat during the winter than did a similar structure facing south.  Such findings led to the conclusion that proper siting could go a long way to holding down heating and ventilating costs for householders.

(248-249)  One of the largest and most sophisticated examples was the Swiss community of Neubuhl, now a district of Zurich.  Seven young architects organized Neubuhl as a cooperative housing project.  The two hundred apartments ranged from small bachelor residences to family dwellings with six rooms.  These units were apportioned among thirty-three separate structures perched on a mountain slope. Almost all the buildings faced south or slightly southeast and were spread far enough apart so that no building blocked another’s solar access during winter.  every unit received the same number of hours of sunlight in winter. [1930s?]

(266)  His [Keck] opportunity came in 1940, when he designed a house for an old friend, Howard Sloan, a Chicago real estate developer….  [Sloan] “The house was opened to the public in September as the Solar House.  On one Sunday we had 1,700 visitors.  The demand of the public was such that I subdivided 10 acres into 38 lots and opened it in April, 1941.  [Although] Hitler was overrunning countries in Europe, customers were becoming jittery, [and] prices were going up, houses sold faster than we could build them."

(296)  A solar-heating system there [Tucson, Arizona] could be expected to carry a much higher percentage of the heating load - especially if heating at night were not required.  Such was the case in the first solar-heated public building, Rose Elementary School, which was designed by Arthur Brown and built in 1948.

(299)  George Löf used another solar hot-air system, similar to the one he had developed in Boulder, to heat his newly built, ranch-style home in Denver, Colorado.  In Albuquerque, New Mexico, the engineering firm of Bridgers and Paxton built the first solar-heated office building in 1956.  This system cooled the building in summer.

(303)  [1873 - discovery of photovoltaic effect on selenium by Willoughby Smith]

(305-306)  [Charles Fritts] He spread a wide, thin layer of selenium onto a metal plate and covered it with a thin, semitransparent gold-leaf film.  This selenium module, Fritts reported, produced a current “that is continuous, constant, and of considerable force[,]… not only by exposure to sunlight, but also to dim diffuse daylight, and even to lamplight."

(330)  The photovoltaics industry also got its first significant opportunity to power land operations with the oil and gas industry during the mid-1970s.  Underground aquifers frequently contain salt water, which corrodes well casings and pipelines.
NB:  First non space applications for oil and gas warning bouys at sea, anti-corrosion on land.

(334)  In the fall of 1976, Hunts Mesa became the first solar-powered microwave repeater site in North America and one of the first in the world.

(354)  By 1977, fully 60 percent of California’s 250,000 pools were solar heated.

(386-387)  That Village Homes has not been replicated may be a result of timing.  As that neighborhood really started to take off, Ronald Reagan took office, and his administration’s dim view of solar energy still haunts us today.  An example of that administration’s anti solar bias is its reception of the document _Review of the Demonstration Program of Solar Heating and Cooling Technologies_, which arrived at the White House during Reagan’s inauguration.  The Department of Energy had paid the highly reputable consulting firm Arthur D. Little a quarter of a million dollars to complete the study.  The lead author did not consider the study controversial.  It outlined high expectations for what solar energy could accomplish if properly funded.  “The following day,” one of the members of the staff that produced the report recalled, “word came from the Reagan team:  ‘Do not release this report… copies are to be destroyed… no secret printings… no discussions.’”  And this was accompanied by a threat:  “If any word gets out, Arthur D. Little will not be compensated.”  The staff member added, “I had never witnessed anything so brutal.  There were no pretensions of free speech.  It was swift and ruthless.  One of the chilliest moments of my life.”  Under the Reagan administration, “solar bodies got decimated,” recalled Edgar DeMeo, director of photovoltaic research at the Electric Power Research Institute in the 1980s.  “Reagan dealt the renewable movement a crippling blow,” he added.  Doug Balcomb summed up the destruction brought about by Reagan:  “The president said in the 1980s, ‘The energy crisis, it’s been solved;  there wasn’t any problem left.’  So people weren’t concerned about it anymore, [since] people tend to follow that kind of a lead.  The few of us left working in the solar field in the 1980s were pretty lonely.  The momentum had evaporated."

(396)  In fact, the heat that such solar-energy systems [pool heaters and passive solar houses] harvest is far more compatible with house and pool heating than the energy that fossil fuels and nuclear power plants supply.  Very little energy is wasted, since the collection occurs on-site, doing away with the huge infrastructure required for supplying fossil-fuel and nuclear energy.  And when solar heating takes the place of electrical heating, it does away with the need to initially raise temperatures hundreds of degrees to run turbines, and the need to transport the resulting electricity hundreds, if not thousands, of miles in order to deliver the power to homes - which require a temperature increase of only 30 or 40 degrees, if not less, for household comfort.

Solar pool heating and solar architecture also demonstrate the power of aggregation.  each solar pool-heating system is small, but the combined heat produced by all such systems as of 2013 is equivalent to that produced by approximately five nuclear power plants.

(377)  “The highest average heat value of sunlight occurs about [the time of day] when it is most needed - at mid-day on the winter solstice,” and “a south wall receives almost _five_ times as much heat from the sun in winter as it does in summer” [Tod Neubauer’s emphasis in a study of natural heating and cooling of buildings from UC Davis]

(381)  He [Tod Neubauer] came up with one simple equation for success, a simple formula that Neubauer called the two-percent rule for finding the length of the required overhang on the south face:  multiply by .02 the height of the south-facing window(s) by the latitude.

(381-382)  The data collected and interpreted were translated into America’s first solar-energy ordinance, a reflection of Neubauer’s design ideas.  Journalist James Ridgeway succinctly explained the new ordinance:  “the basic idea… is that new housing built in Davis shall not experience an excessive heat gain in summer nor excessive heat loss in winter.”  It allowed builders two choices.  The first was a prescriptive path that stipulated a south orientation;  the majority of windows would be on the south side, and a minimum of windows would be on the east and west sides and shaded either by eaves, drapery, or vegetation.  The second path permitted more leeway as long as the building conformed to the designated heating and cooling loads set by the city.

(389)  Only subsidies in the form of tax credits, and the big jumps in oil prices in 1973 and 1979, kept the solar water-heater industry growing.  It grew from only twenty thousand solar water heaters installed during 1978 to nearly a million total by the end of 1983.

(390)  When the price of oil dropped in the mid-1980s, the Israeli government did not want people backsliding, as had happened in other parts of the world.  And so it required citizens to continue heating their water with the sun, by mandating the use of solar water heaters in buildings with more than four stories - in which the majority of Israelis live.  At the time of this writing, more than 90 percent of Israeli households own solar water heaters, making Israel the second-largest per capita user of such heaters.

(392)  Barbados is the third-largest per capita consumer of solar hot water.  In the 1930s, Florida solar water-heater companies exported their products to the Caribbean.  Some of these were sold in Barbados, but the Barbados solar water-heater story didn’t really get started until 1964….

Solar Dynamics’ new entry became the first solar water heater in the world to guarantee temperature performance adequate for all domestic-hot-water needs.

(395)  [Austria]  From the self-build groups emerged a national grassroots movement called the Renewable Energy Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Erneuerbare Energie).  The working group set up information centers and workshops to inform the public about, and to teach them to build, solar water heaters.
Michael Ornetzeder, “Old Technology and Social Innovations.  Inside the Austrian Success Story on Solar Water Heaters,” Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 15, no 1 (2001)
Michael Ornetzeder and Harald Rohracher, “User Led Innovations and Participation Processes:  Lessons for Sustainable Energy Technologies,” Energy Policy 34, no 2 (2006)

(397-398)  The success of Ærø Island [Denmark] so impressed all of Europe that the European Union decided to fund the doubling of the collector area of the Marstal solar farm, add to it a boiler that would be heated by locally grown willow chips, and a reservoir to hold the excess solar heat collected in summer for winter use.  It would demonstrate to the world the efficacy of district heating solely with renewable energy.

(402)  The use of photovoltaics for individual remote homes in the developing world was pioneered by the French in Tahiti.  Ironically, it was the French Atomic Energy Commission that initiated the program in 1978.  The agency’s nuclear testing in Polynesia had not endeared it or the French government to the Polynesian people.  Public opinion had to be shored up.

(405)  With 2 percent of its rural populace relying on solar power for their electricity, Kenya became the first country where more people plug into the sun than into the national rural electrification program.  What is more amazing is that photovoltaics’ ascendency occurred without government help.

(411)  Donald Osborn, formerly director of alternative-energy programs at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, in California, outlined other advantages of on-site photovoltaic electrical generation, for both the consumer and the utilities.  “You reduce the electricity lost through long-distance transmission,” Osborn stated, which runs about 30 percent on the best-maintained lines.  Structures with their own photovoltaic plants decrease the flow of electricity through distribution lines at substation transformers, “thereby extending the transformers’ lives.”  “And for a summer-daytime-peaking utility,” Osborn added, “you can offset the load on these systems when the demand for electricity would be greatest,” helping to eliminate “brownouts in the summer and early fall.”  On-site photovoltaic-generated electricity also makes renewable energy economically more attractive than power generated by a large solar electric plant, because it “competes at the retail level rather than at the wholesale level” with other producers of electricity.

(440)  Few realize the value of solar energy today.  The value of the global photovoltaic market alone climbed to over $82 billion in 2010.

(442)  Oil received thirty times more in subsidies from the federal government than solar between 1950 and 2010.  The International Energy Agency Agency reported that in 2012 alone thirty-seven governments spent more than $523 billion subsidizing fossil fuels while assisting renewables with almost one-sixth the funding.

(446)  In California, the state’s revised Title 24 building standards for 2013 will also move solar further into the mainstream.  The new code requires that by 2020 all new residential housing and by 2030 all commercial buildings produce as much energy as they consume, a designation called net-zero energy.  The new building rules require photovoltaics on all rooftops.

To meet the demand for net-zero energy, many architects are combining older solar technologies - solar architecture and solar water heaters - with the newest, photovoltaics.  Solar  pioneer Steve Strong built the first net-zero-energy house back in 1979 by using such a strategy.  Back then, people called this type of structure “an energy independent house.”

(449)  But a new German program provides incentives for homeowners to combine photovoltaics with electricity storage, allowing homes to actually cut themselves from the grid.  The program will reduce the twenty-year cost of a PV system with storage to 10 percent less than one without.  Once again, Germany leads the way in photovoltaics, this time toward autonomous living with solar electricity.

(458)  Robert James Forbes, _Studies in Ancient Technologies_ (Leiden, Holland:  Brill, 1964)
James Ring, “Windows, Baths, and Solar Energy,” American Journal of Archaeology, no 4 (1996)

(487)  Michael Ornetzeder, “Old Technology and Social Innovations.  Inside the Austrian Success Story on Solar Water Heaters,”  Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 15, no 1 (2001)
Michael Ornetzeder and Harold Rohracher, “User Led Innovations and Participation Processes:  Lessons for Sustainable Energy Technologies,”  Energy Policy 34, no 2 (2006)

Sunday, October 5, 2014

Christine Jones on Soil Carbon

9/1/14
Newton Community Farm

Deborah:  more carbon has come out of the soil than out of smokestacks and industry.

Flemish scientist (Van Helmand) from 1640s weighed soil in a tub, planted a willow in it, and after 5 years weighed the tree and weighed the soil.  The freeways over 149 pounds and the soil sighed only a few ounces less than originally.  The tree came from the air - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.  Air is 78% N, 21% O, and all the rest are trace gases.  Carbon is only 0.04% of the atmosphere.

Most of the nitrogen fixing microbes refuse to be cultured in the lab.  Plants need about 60 different elements to grow and be healthy and associates with microbial and fungal communities in order to get them. Plants build soil at the roots through aggregates.  There's more water in the aggregate than outside and less oxygen than outside and right at the root tip in association with microrrhyzal fungi.  These aggregates can fix nitrogen even if they are not associated with legumes.  Bacteria can't fix nitrogen at atmospheric levels of oxygen.

Humus is formed inside the aggregates and needs 60% carbon, 8-10% nitrogen, 1-2% phosphorus, 0.8-1.2% sulfur to form, with the remainder being aluminum, iron….

Soil is 50% oxygen bound to other elements and 30% silicon, and then aluminum and iron (20%) which act as catalysts. Degrading soils have more free aluminum.

Humus is an organo-mineral complex formed inside the aggregates.  Humus is honey-colored, a gel-like substance and looks like crude oil under the microscope.

Organic matter in the soil breaks down into CO2 and plants take it up through the underside of the leaves. For some plants, this is the most important source of CO2. This is the soil respiration rate and this carbon can be the limiting factor in plant growth:  labile carbon.

Grasses build soils.  Van Helmand's experiment would have found that there was more soil in his tub than when he started.

90% of the roots of most plants are in the top 50 centimeters (18 inches) of the soil.

Measure of plant photosynthesis:  brixing
Superphosphate inhibits mycorrhizal fungi.

Grasses build soils through producing humus.  Grasses depend upon good soil and thus put carbon back into the soil.  Grasses build soil better than anything else.  Soil is a product of photosynthesis and microbial resynthesis so soil is not the base of the pyramid, photosynthesis is.  Only the growing root tips grow new soil and this active growing of grasses need grazing animals.

There is the decomposition pathway for carbon, catabolic pathway, and the liquid carbon pathway, an anabolic pathway which builds up humus which produces a non-labile form of carbon, stable carbon.  Increase our capacity for photosynthesis, becoming light farmers, never leaving bare ground.

Mycorrhizal fungi take carbon from the roots and provide other nutrients to the plants.  This is natural carbon trading.  Have a soil restoration credit rather than simply a commoditized carbon credit.  Every farm becomes a carbon sink rather than a carbon source.

Liquid carbon is where carbon is being moved to the most actively growing roots, at the depth of 12-16 inches.  Up to 80% of the carbon can become humus at a rate of up to 30 tons per year.  In humus, the carbon is in ring form rather than chains and is much harder to breakdown.

A healthy soil is a net sink for methane through methantrophs.

Annual grasses use photosynthesis more efficiently than perennials.

Cover crops:  ryegrass, vetch, clover for over winter
oats, field peas, buckwheat for winter kill
And do multi-species cropping.  Cocktail cover cropping.

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Climate Changed


This book is a graphic novel about climate change.  The plot is the author educating himself about the issue and beginning to confront the implications of what he learns in the decisions he makes in his own life.  What is especially interesting is that the information and the experts he consults are all European.  For an American, that puts a slightly different spin upon things.

The detail and the discussion of the issues around climate change are deep and the references are long.  This is not a "comic book" examination but a fully researched and strongly felt narrative.

_Climate Changed:  A Personal Journey Through the Science_ by Philippe Squarzoni
NY:  Abrams ComicArt, 2014
ISBN 978-1-4197-1255-5

(58-59)  methane today 1.8 ppm atmosphere (200x less than CO2)
for last 400,000 years methane in atmosphere between 0.35 and 0.7 ppm
since 1750, the Industrial Revolution, methane in the atmosphere has doubled, from around 800 ppb to 1800 ppb or 1.8 ppm

(60) 30 million tons of methane (per year?) accumulate in the atmosphere
shorter atmospheric lifetime than CO2 [30 years?]
CH4, methane, 72x more effective infrared trapper than CO2
Nitrous oxides concentrate in lower levels of atmosphere
More than half of human emissions from nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture

(69)  ...the current concentration of CO2 is the highest since humans have been on earth 
the Cretaceous, 55 million years ago, had similar or higher levels
homo sap sap 200,000 years old

(90)  2004 Cyclone Catarina formed in the South Atlantic, once thought impossible

(95)  So what scientists are seeing when they make temperature measurements, analyze ice caps, tree rings - all those show that global warming is a reality.  Over the course of the 20th century the average surface temperature of the earth increased by 0.75º C [1.3º F]
half of that over the century’s final twenty years 
NB:  when we should have known better and had an environmental movement in place

(185)  After energy production, the industrial sector is the world’s next largest emitter of CO2 [16.8% industry]
It comes in first if we take into account all the greenhouse gases put together.
The production of basic materials - metals, glasses, cement, paper…
…accounts for 80% of emissions due directly to manufacturing for the gases combined.
The rest are emitted by the manufacture of finished goods.
In general, finished goods are thought to generate up to two times their weight in carbon emissions.

(212)  Today the contents of a typical shopping basket of twenty-five items travel an average of six times around the planet before reaching the consumer.

(213)  Over the first ten years of the century, emissions due to deforestation decreased from 20% to 10%.

(238)  A [sea-level] rise of a foot or more is unavoidable [in what time frame?]. And even at the stabilization point, the rise will be over a meter.
It is estimated that a rise in sea level of a little over 3 feet (1 meter) will result in the coastline receding an average of 110 yards - about 100 meters of retreat.

(239)  Sixteen out of twenty of the planet’s biggest metropolises are on the sea.  More than half the world’s population lives near a coast.

(244)  According to the world bank, 60 million people living in arid zones could migrate by 2020.
Every third-of-an inch (1-cm) rise in sea level means the displacement of a million people.  [3 million people displaced for every inch rise - a decade?]

(245)  It is estimated that there are already 25 to 50 million eco-refugees fleeing from drought, hurricanes, floods… and their migration is accelerating.

(314)  It’ll only take burning one-third of the known resources to explode past climate-changing thresholds.  If, however, we want to limit global warming in the long-term, that means at least half the reserves of fossil fuels need to stay in the ground.

(322)  Every year the sun sends the equivalent of 6,000 times our energy consumption to earth.

(341)  For example the Sleipner platform in Norway’s North Sea - the pioneer of this technology [carbon capture and sequestration] - buried 1 million tons of CO2 while emitting 900,000 tons into the atmosphere.

(344)  France may well generate 75% of its electricity from nuclear power but it still consumes more oil than its less nuclear neighbors.

(345)  If we add it [greenhouse gas emissions] all up starting at the uranium mines, it’s not a negligible amount.  You need to dig it up with machines, you have to transport it, treat it….
It comes out roughly to 2.1 ounces [60 g] of CO2 per kilowatt-hour of energy produced.  Compared, for example, to 1.1 pounds [500 g] of CO2 for natural gas.  It’s better, but it’s not zero.  And it’s more than wind or solar.
…nuclear is only 2% or 3% of the world’s energy consumption.

(369)  The Negawatt Association (http://www.negawatt.org) developed an energy scenario of this type, based on typical needs, that combines energy conservation, energy efficiency, and development of renewable energy [to meet current needs with much lower consumption].
In combining conservation and efficiency we could reduce our energy consumption by a factor of 2 to 5 and meet all the same needs.

(406)  I believe that assuming there are limits is the only feasible public-policy approach.
Genevieve Azam is an economist studying the relationships between ecology, economy, and society.  She is a member of the scientific council of ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions and Aid to Citizens - http://www.attac.org/enbv), an organization dedicated to developing sustainable globalization and ecological alternatives.

(441)  It may be useful to think about the theory of solidarism that statesman Leon Bougeois, Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1920, first discussed in the 1890s.

(442)  “The individual does not exist in isolation” was his creed…
“Interdependent and interrelated,” Nicholas Delalande writes on this, “people are indebted to each other and to the generations that preceded them as well as to those who will succeed them.”

(447)  … the fact that the emissions market becomes speculative, and promotes the spread of financial trading into the area of climate control - the negative nature of which we’ve been exposed to in recent years - that should be avoided at all costs.

(449)  The fantasy surrounding the capitalist society also needs to change...
The example often used, of the conversion of the US economy [to support the war] during World War II, shows that, yes, we can achieve major changes without taking centuries…
What the United State did after Pearl Harbor to transform the automobile industry into an arms industry was only possible because there was no democratic for opposing it.

(464)  Earth Overshoot Day - http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/earth_overshoot_day/

(465)  … the day when global consumption exceeds the renewable resources of the planet
and begins to tap into the reserves needed for the coming years.
In 1996, Earth Overshoot Day fell in November.  In 2007 it was October 6 [2014 now in mid-August]

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Silicon Solar Cells Transformed

7/25/14
MIT
David Ginley, NREL
David.ginley@nrel.gov

The limitation of silicon solar is silver for contacts which maxes out at around 5 TWatt.  Single cell efficiency maximizes out at around 29% efficiency. Bell Labs first cells were 6% efficient.  World installed solar is .3 TWatts by 2014.
Chinese dominate the PV market because they are the only ones who built silicon plants when supply reached scarcity.
Panasonic has a 25.6% efficiency HIT cell [mono thin crystalline silicon wafer surrounded by ultra-thin amorphous silicon layers] with contacts on the back .  SunPower has a 25% six inch cell built on their production line (but not in production yet).  Sharp also has a 25% cell.  
Theoretical efficiency of a single junction cell under 1000 sun concentration is around 33%.
25 year warranty but some companies are going to 35 with a possibility of 50 years and it is not the silicon cell with fails but the packaging or contacts.
Fifty cents per watt is the accessible price now.
University of New South Wales is working on thin film silicon, 20 microns rather than the 75 microns now used. 16.8% efficiency.
Tandem cells - silicon paired with other substances including  quantum dots, perovskites, theoretically to 34%
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in colloidal silicon nanocrystals can theoretically go beyond the existing limits.  Two or three photons per carrier.

Addressing Climate Change through Community Engagement and Behavior Change

7/24/14
David Gershon of the Empowerment Institute
webinar, slides and recording at http://scitynetwork.contentshelf.com/product?product=I140724000003435

70% of atmospheric carbon comes from cities
Second order social change:  empower transform innovate collaborate disseminate
Gershon founded Ecoteam - “unsurpassed in changing behavior” which sustained over time
Everett Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation:  early adopters 15% (tipping point) early majority 35% late majority 35% laggards 15%
15% population makes the tipping point
Laggards never participate and no use trying to engage them [the climate change movement, seemingly, has concentrated on the laggards for the last 20 years]
Neighborhood is the scalable diffusion platform, usually with 25% participation
Adjacent possibilities:  becoming a driver for a green economy, generating social capital, building “high performance” teams, promoting social innovation and collaboration, creating socially engaged citizenry
Philadelphia wanted to use the EcoTeam model to address other social change issues, Livable Neighborhood campaign, 101 block-based teams formed
NYC for disaster resilience after 9/11:  Ready New York’s All Together Now, 153 buildings or blocks, 5,000 participants, 68% recruitment level
Low Carbon Diet Program:  Portland OR, 41% block participation, 25% CO2 reduction, Davis CA first US city to develop carbon neutral plan by 2050
Global warming cafe to get large numbers of people to participate and form smaller teams
[Robin] Dunbar strategy:  150 people at Dunbar limit is a cool block, 1,500 cool neighborhood, 15,000 cool ecodistrict, to cool city - now working in Northern CA on Cool City Challenge
Better lifestyles are infectious
12 hour webinar series 10/9 - 12/18, 2014 at http://sCityNetwork.com/Gershon

Thursday, July 17, 2014

The German Energiewende and Its Impact on the Global Energy Transformation

6/12/14
Goethe Institute
Eicke Weber, Fraunhofer-Institute and Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg
http://cse.fraunhofer.org

Consul:  380,000 new jobs in green energy sector in Germany

Weber: Fraunhofer is largest EU solar research institute and has grown 3x over the last decade
99.+% inverter efficiency from DC to AC 
Referenced Jeremy Rifkin's Third Industrial Revolution book
Energy is first step but all resources and materials use will have to change in a sustainable future
"Nuclear power fundamentally is not safe” says Dr Weber, a physicist, "and we don't need it any more."
Renewables have noticeable economic advantages
80-100% efficient renewables is the goal
Started in 2000 - 2002 with a gov/industry agreement on shutting down nuclear and feed-in tariffs for renewables
2008 EU adopted 20 20 20 program:  20% more efficiency, 20% more renewables, 20% less ghgs by 2020 compared to 2005
PV prices fell by a factor of 10 from 2002 to 2012 in part due to the large German market (and German tech went into Chinese solar factories)
Changing the structure of the utility business and increasing reluctance as utilities try to figure out a new business plan 
[RWE is beginning a solar leasing program]
Cornerstones:  efficiency, massive increase in all renewables (geothermal and Iceland mentioned), fast redevelopment of grid to be bidirectional, small and large scale energy storage, mobility as an integral part of energy system - he's now driving a hydrogen fuel cell car in Freiburg which has solar hydrogen fueling stations
Now over 25% renewables in Germany
Reached 100% daytime electricity from renewables on Pentecost and nukes had to pay people to take their energy, a negative price for energy
Combined cycle gas is the way to backstop renewables
PV market is now mono and multi silicon with thin film declining
As cumulative market doubled, the price drops by 20%, the trend over the last 33 years
For wind; each doubling of cumulative production the price drops by 8%
Wind and solar complement each other well he says
In Germany PV cost is $1.50 per installed watt for everything, per kWh cost for solar is half that of plug power, about $0.13
PV is not a commodity but a high tech product with many opportunities for new advances
Silicon PV efficiency at theoretical limit of 28% and record now at 25% for single layer PV 
Multi layer PV under concentration has a theoretical limit of 60% and Fraunhofer now has a cell at 44% efficiency (which needs clear blue sky and two axis tracking) 

Sunday, June 1, 2014

The Populist Moment

_The Populist Moment:  A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America_ by Lawrence Goodwyn
NY:  Oxford University Press, 1978
ISBN 0-19-502416-8

(ix)  Finally, and by all odds most importantly, our greatest problem in understanding protest is grounded in contemporary American culture.  In addition to being central, this cultural difficulty is also the most resistant to clear explanation:  we are not only culturally confused, our confusion makes it difficult for us even to imagine our confusion.  Obviously, it is prudent, then, to state here.

The reigning American presumption about the American experience is grounded in the idea of progress, the conviction that the present is "better" than the past and the future will bring still more betterment.
NB:  Although this has changed since the 1970s

(xix)  "Individual self-respect" and "collective self-confidence" constitute, then the cultural building blocks of mass democratic politics.  Their development permits people to conceive of the idea of acting in self-generated democratic ways - as distinct from passively participating in various hierarchical modes bequeathed by the received culture.  In this study of Populism, I have given a name to this plateau of cooperative and democratic conduct.  I have called it "the movement culture."

(xxviv)  I hope we shall crush in its birth the aristocracy of our monied corporations which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength, and bid defiance to the laws of our country.
Thomas Jefferson, 1816

(32)  Tactically, the rise of the [Farmers] Alliance was a result of its determination to go beyond the cash stores of the Grange and make pioneering efforts in cooperative marketing as well as purchasing.

(47)  [At Cleburne, TX in August 1886]  The farmers sought "such legislation as shall secure to our people freedom from the onerous and shameful abuses that the industrial classes are now suffering at the hands of arrogant capitalists and powerful corporations."

The committee placed first on its list a demand for the recognition of trade unions and cooperative stores.  Other labor planks called for the establishment of a national bureau of labor statistics "that we may arrive at a correct knowledge of the education, moral and financial condition of the labor masses," the passage of an improved mechanics lien law "to compel corporations to pay their employees according to contract, in lawful money," and the abolition of the practice of leasing state convicts to private employers.  The final labor plank recommended a national conference of all labor organizations "to discuss such measures as may be of interest to the laboring classes."

(56)  It was, in fact, the most massive organizing drive by any citizen institution of nineteenth-century America.  The broader outlines had a similar sweep:  The Alliance's five-year campaign carried lecturers into forty-three states and territories and touched two million American farm families;  it brought a program and a sense of purpose to Southern farmers who had neither, and provided an organizational medium for Westerners who had radical goals but lacked a mass constituency.

(61)  Insurgent movements are not the product of "hard times";  they are the product of insurgent cultures.

(66)  What was true for Kansas and Texas was true everywhere;  indeed, the agrarian revolt cannot be understood outside the framework of the cooperative crusade that was its source.  Amidst a national political system in which the mass constituencies of both major parties were fashioned out of the sectional loyalties of the Civil War, the cooperative movement became the recruiting vehicle though which huge numbers of farmers in the South and West learned to think about a new kind of democratic possibility in America.  The central educational tool of the Farmers Alliance was the cooperative experiment itself.  The massive effort at agrarian self-help, and the opposition it stimulated from furnishing merchants, wholesale houses cotton buyers, and bankers in the South and from grain elevator companies, railroads, land companies, livestock commission agencies, and bankers in the West, brought home to hundreds of thousands of American farmers new insights into their relationship with the commercial elements of American society.  Reduced to its essentials, the cooperative movement recruited the farmers to the Alliance in the period 1887-91, and the resulting cooperative experience educated enough of them to make independent political action a potential reality.  In the process, the Alliance created the world's first large-scale working class cooperative and proposed a comprehensive democratic monetary system for America, the world's emerging industrial leader.  That the chief theorist of both the cooperative and the monetary system, Charles Macune, consistently opposed Alliance political activism and feared the emergence of the third party added a curious dimension to the internal politics of the agrarian revolt.

(75)  In November 1887, the Texas Exchange advanced its program.  It was called the "joint-note plan."  The quiet phrase concealed a breathtaking extension of the cooperative concept:  landowning farmers in the Alliance were asked to place their entire individual holding at the disposal of the group - to stake their own futures on the ultimate success of the Alliance cooperative.  The gamble was an unusual one:  landowners and tenants alike would collectively purchase their supplies for the year through the state exchange on credit, the landowners signing the joint note.  For collateral, they would put up their land and endeavor to protect themselves against loss by taking mortgages on the crops of the tenants.  They would market their cotton collectively through the exchange and then pay off the joint notes at year's end.  The farmers would sink or swim together;  the landless would escape the crop lien, too, or none of them would.  As they had in the past, the brotherhood of the Alliance would "stand united."  In one dramatic season of cooperative marketing and purchasing, they would collectively overcome all of the furnishing merchants of Texas and fee every farmer in the state from the clutches of the lien system!
NB:  collective credit union

(81)  Macune proposed the creation of a treasury within the exchange to issue its own currency - exchange treasury notes - in payment of up to 90 per cent of the current market value of commodities.  Farmers would circulate these notes within the order by using them to purchase their supplies at the Alliance stores.  The latter were to be strengthened by having each county Alliance charter a store of $10,000 capital, half paid in by the local farmers and the other half by the central exchange.  As outlined by Macune, the plan actually cost the central exchange nothing in capital, for it acquired the use of the $10,000 capital of each of the county Alliances for half that amount - in effect, using the credit of the local stores.  The plan, while certainly strengthening the local operation, had as its principal intent the strengthening of the central exchange;  indeed, each county Alliance was to be coerced into subscribing for its proportionate per-capita share - on pain of being excluded from the benefits of the treasury-note plan.
NB:  local currency

(90)  Only one thing was certain:  the Alliance was attempting to construct, within the framework of American capitalism, some variety of cooperative commonwealth.  Precisely where that would lead was unclear.  More than any other Allianceman, Charles Macune had felt the power of the corporate system arrayed alongside the power of a self-help farmer cooperative.  He had gone to the bankers and they had replied in the negative.  Though his own farmer associates had said "yes," they could not marshall enough resources to defeat the crop lien system.

(97)  It is one of the enduring ironies of history that established systems of hierarchy rarely find it necessary to rely on sensible defenses as an essential means of maintaining power.  Police or other modes of social authority are sometimes necessary, but logic rarely is.  Indeed, throughout recorded history, the presence in all human societies of jerry-built modes of thought, behavior, and racial and religious memories have served to help protect traditional elites by strewing complicated psychological and emotional roadblocks in the path of those with unsanctioned but relatively thoughtful innovations.  So pervasive have been these habits of thought that established hierarchies have tended to be defended as venerable repositories of good sense when they are, in fact, merely powerful and orderly.  

A complementary presumption is that insurgent movements are nonsensical.  Indeed, the very thought that an insurgent movement, in its fundamental tenets, may be more than superficial calls into question the usefulness of the established order that resists the movement.  Participants in the mainstream of most societies generally find such causal relationships difficult to accept because to do so would challenge their own individual modes of thought and behavior.  The existence of a coherent protest movement is, therefore, an awkward fact for any society.  For Americans, Populism proved particularly awkward.

(118)  Not until the labor movement developed a tactical solution to the problem of strikebreakers, a solution found only after three generations of experimentation, did effective organization come to a substantial part of the nation's industrial work force. [the sit down strike]
NB:  The urban Socialist surge as the US entered WWI was another time when a farm/labor coalition might have been possible.

(122)  If these black leaders relinquished their power base within the Republican Party - and it was the sole political base black men had remaining to them in the South - only to discover that the agrarian movement failed politically, they faced the probability of being left with no personal foothold at all in the electoral process.

(138)  On the morning after the election [of 1890] it was clear that some sort of earthquake had occurred.  By any standard, the Republican Party was a shaken institution.  The tremors reached all the way to Washington, where President Harrison was moved to describe the Republican performance in the West as "our election disaster."  "If the Alliance can pull one-half of our Republican voters," he said, "our future is not cheerful."  It was not necessary, of course, for agrarian insurgents actually to win elections to directly affect Republican fortunes.  Every independent vote cast in the West, whether it helped elect radicals or not, weakened the G. O. P.  The startling news in states other than Kansas was that the decrease in the Republican vote was enough to send a flood of Democrats to Washington.  The totals were sobering.  While in 1888 the House of Representatives had had 166 Republicans and 159 Democrats, the new House would contain 88 Republicans and 235 Democrats.
NB:  election of 1890 like 2010?

(167)  But the emotional peak at St Louis was provided by Ignatius Donnelly of Minnesota.  Donnelly's famous preamble was an expression of the deepest drives of the agrarian radicals who file dthe hall and who had worked so many years to gain the allies who joined them there.  If Donnelly's words seemed harsh and excessive to the comfortable, the delegates at St Louis felt he described the American reality:

We meet in the midst of a nation brought to the verge of moral, political, and material ruin.  Corruption dominates the ballot-box, the Legislatures, the Congress, and touches even the ermine of the bench.

The people are demoralized… The newspapers are largely subsidized or muzzled, public opinion silenced, business prostrated, homes covered with mortgages, labor impoverished, and the land concentrating in the hands of capitalists. The urban workmen are denied the right to organize for self-protection, imported pauperized labor beats down their wages, a hireling standing army, unrecognized by our laws, is established to shoot them down, and they are rapidly degenerating into European conditions. The fruits of the toil of millions are badly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history of mankind; and the possessors of these, in turn, despise the Republic and endanger liberty.
... We charge that the controlling influences dominating both these parties have permitted the existing dreadful conditions to develop without serious effort to prevent or restrain them. Neither do they now promise us any substantial reform. They have agreed together to ignore, in the coming campaign, every issue but one. They propose to drown the outcries of a plundered people with the uproar of a sham battle over the tariff, so that capitalists, corporations, national banks, rings, trusts, watered stock, the demonetization of silver and the oppressions of the usurers may all be lost sight of...

(185)  The strongest Populist vote-getter in Montana [in 1892] was the candidate for Attorney General, a woman's rights advocate named Ella Knowles.

(200)  Still, Populists were by no means disheartened.  They could remind one another, and with complete accuracy, that the infant prewar Republican Party had leaped from obscurity in 1854 to national power in 1860, largely as a result of the hopelessly anachronistic character of the old Whig Party.  Why should reformers feel discouraged?  In 1892 _both_ major parties appeared anachronistic!  Both were in thrall to the whims of the money power, and "concentrated capital."  The "gold Democrats" had narrowly defeated the "Gold Republicans" and given the nation President Grover Cleveland.  Both old parties were continuing to turn their backs on economic realities and were working in a harmonious "sound money" partnership to "down the people."

(207)  What was democracy when aggressive "captains of industry" could buy whole legislatures and keep the United States Congress in a perpetual state of genteel servitude?  What was honest labor when ruthless structuring of the currency drove the price of farm products below the cost of production?  What was thrift when high interest rates gobbled up farmland or when railroads made more money shipping corn than farmers did in growing it?  Where was community virtue when bankers, commission houses, and grain elevator companies wantonly destroyed self-help farmer cooperatives?  Where was dignity when farm women were forced to go barefoot and the furnishing man determined what a farmer's family could or could not eat?  Where was freedom when the crop lien system was enforced by the convict lease system?

(208)  The peripatetic Henry Vincent of the _American Nonconformist_ wrote a brooding account of this epic of industrial despair [Coxey's Army];  he turned it into a book-length assertion of the need for the immediate rise to power of the People's Party.  He called his book _The Story of the Commonweal_.
NB:  I have notes on that book as well.

(231)  At bottom, the third party's internal struggle was a contest between a cooperating group of political office-seekers on the one hand and the Populist movement on the other.  The politicians had short-run objectives - wining the next election.  In contrast, the agrarian movement, both as shaped by the Alliance organizers who had recruited the party's mass base of partisans and as shaped by the recruits themselves, had long-term goals, fashioned during the years of cooperative struggle and expressed politically in the planks of the Omaha Platform.

(249)  Through "Coin" Harvey, the cause of silver was penetrating Democratic ranks from below;  through Herman Taubeneck and his small circle of friends, it was penetrating the ranks of the People's Party from above.  Silver mine owners directly financed both efforts.

(265)  The narrowed boundaries of modern politics that date from the 1896 campaign encircle such influential areas of American life as the relationship of corporate power to citizen power, the political language legitimized to define and settle public issues within a mass society yoked to privately owned mass communications and to privately financed elections, and even the style through which the reality of the American experience - the culture itself - is conveyed to each new generation in the public and private school systems of the nation.  In the  aggregate, these boundaries outline a clear retreat from the democratic vistas of either the eighteenth-century Jeffersonians or the nineteenth-century Populists.

(284)  The idea that serious structural reform of the democratic process was "inevitable" no longer seemed persuasive to reasonable reformers.  Rather, it was evident that political innovations had to be advanced cautiously, if at all, and be directed toward lesser objectives that did not directly challenge the basic prerogatives of those who ruled.  The thought became the inherited wisdom of the American reform tradition, passed from one generation to another.  A consensus thus came to be silently ratified:  reform politics need not concern itself with structural alteration of the economic customs of the society.  This conclusion, of course, had the effect of removing from mainstream reform politics the idea of people in an industrial society gaining significant degrees of autonomy in the structure of their own lives.  The reform tradition of the twentieth century unconsciously defined itself within the framework of inherited power relationships.  The range of political possibility was decisively narrowed - not by repression, or exile, or guns, but by the simple power of the reigning new culture itself.

(287)  In addition to the banishment of the "financial question" as a political issue, three other developments soon materialized in the wake of the 1896 election to establish enduring patterns for the twentieth century - the rapid acceleration of the merger movement in American industry, the decline of public participation in the democratic process itself, and corporate domination of mass communications.

(292)  To an extent that was not true of many other societies, the cultural high ground in American had been successfully consolidated by the corporate creed a decade before American socialists, led by Eugene Debs, began their abortive effort to create a mass popular base.  The triumphant new American orthodoxy of the Gilded Age, sheltering the two-party system in a dialogue substantially unrelated to democratic structural reform of the inherited economic and social system, consigned the advocates of such ideas to permanent marginality.  The Populists have thus been, to date, the last American reformers with authentic cultural credentials to solicit mass support for the idea of achieving the democratic organization of an industrialized society.

(302)  As subsequent history was to reveal, these Populistic premises proved to be beyond the conceptual reach of twentieth-century Americans.  Restructuring of American banking was not something about which New Dealers or New Frontiersmen could think with sustained attention.  The received culture has proved to be so powerful that substantive ideas about a democratic system of money and credit have become culturally inadmissible.  Such ideas (the sub-treasury concept of a treasury-based democratic bank will do adequately as an example) are, in the judgment of prevailing cultural authority, "unsound."  No one disputes such culturally sanctioned wisdom today, any more than the goldbug simplicities were disputed in "informed" circles during the Gilded Age.
NB:  Graeber or Krugman or Kropotkin looked at sub-treasury system?

(303)  This [movement] culture was comprised of many ingredients - most visible being the infrastructure of local, county, state, and national Alliance organizations.  But this was surface.  More real were all of the shared experiences within the Alliance - the elaborate encampments, the wagon trains, the meals for thousands - and more real still were the years of laboring together in the sub alliances to form trade committees, to negotiate with merchants, to build the cooperatives to new heights, to discuss the causes of adversity, and, in time, to come to the new movement folkway, the "Alliance Demand"….  Because these multiple methods of interior communication existed, Alliancemen found a way to believe in their own movement, rather than to respond to what the larger society said about their movement.

(305)  All important sectors of commercial America opposed the cooperative movement, not only banks and commission agencies, but grain elevator companies, railroads, mortgage companies, and, perhaps needless to add, furnishing merchants.  The National Farmers Alliance itself persisted as an institution, but the cooperative purpose that sustained the personal day-to-day dedication of members to their own institution did not persist.  Once the politics of the sub-treasury had been orchestrated through the lecturing system in order to bring on the new party, the lecturing system itself withered.  The reason was a basic one;  the lecturers no longer had anything substantive to lecture about.  The Alliance could no longer save the farmers;  only the new party could bring the needed structural changes in the American economic system.

"Lecturing" thus became a function of the People's Party.  The new lecturers who provided the continuing internal communications link within the movement culture were the reform editors.  The National Reform Press Association was to the People's Party what the lecturing system was to the Alliance, the interior adhesive of the democratic movement.  The flaw in all this was the simple fact that the National Reform Press Association did not have an organized constituency, as Alliance lecturers had earlier possessed.  Within the Peoples Party, as it organized itself, there could be no continuing democratic dialogue, no give and take of question and answer, of perceived problem and attempted solution, between rank-and-file members and elected spokesmen, such as had given genuine democratic meaning to the days of cooperative effort within the Alliance.  Rather, reform editors asserted and defended the Populist vision, and their subscribers, in organizational isolation, received these views in a passive state, as it were.  Such a dynamic undermines the very prospect of sustaining a democratic culture grounded - as it must be to be democratic - in individual self-respect and mass self-confidence.  Individual self-respect requires self-assertion, the performance of acts, as farmers performed in their sub alliance business meetings, in their country trade committees, in their statewide marketing and purchasing cooperatives.  But, in vivid contrast, the passive reading of reform newspapers fortified inherited patterns of deference.
NB:  True politics is a performative act - swadeshi

(308)  In democratic terms, the structural weakness of the People's Party evolved from the failure of its organizers, in the founding convention of 1892, to understand that the third party, to be authentically democratic, had to be organized as a mass party with a mass membership.  It was organized instead, like all large American parties before and since, as a representative party, with elite cadres of party regulars dominating the organizational machinery from precinct to national convention.  The People's Party spoke, rather more tellingly than most American parties have ever done, in the name of the people.  But in structural terms the People's Party was not made up of the people;  it was comprised of party elites.  Its ultimate failure, therefore, was conceptual - a failure on a theoretical level of democratic analysis.
NB: Deval Patrick's first campaign as net roots/grassroots and model for Obama in 2008, including lack of follow-through

(313)  Structural reform of American banking no longer existed as an issue in America.  The ultimate cultural victory being not merely to win an argument but to remove the subject from the agenda of future contention, the consultation of values that so successfully submerged the "financial question" beyond the purview of succeeding generations was self-sustaining and largely invisible.

(316)  Awaiting agricultural analysis, embarrassingly enough, is a considerable amount of evidence suggesting that the real economies of scale are not technical, but artificial, produced by the monopolistic practices of suppliers and purchasers further undergirded by federal subsidy and tax policies.  But while the concept of "economies of scale" remains debatable, the more germane historical reality is that centralization of American land was well advanced even before corporate agriculture could prove or disprove its "efficiency."  It was simply a matter of capital and the power of those having capital to prevent remedial democratic legislation.  The failure to provide short-run credit for seventy years would seem to be the operative ingredient in these dynamics which has been rather overlooked.

(317)  Yet the idea of a democratic monetary system - the operative dynamic of American Populism - is simply not something that Americans seem any longer to aspire to.  It is not "practical" to have such large democratic goals.  Thus does modern sophistication serve as a defense for modern resignation.  

Inexorably, the consolidation of economic power in corporate America has shaped an entirely new political landscape, one in which the agenda of possible democratic actions has shrunk significantly

(323)  Frank Doster, the socialist judge, became the Populist Chief Justice of the Kansas Supreme Court

(329)  In 1920, Macune deposited his reminiscences of the Alliance years in the University of Texas library in Austin.  The fifty-nine page manuscript, as enigmatic as Macune's own career, raised more questions than it answered.  He understood the nation's economy better than most Gilded Age economists, and he understood the limits of the cooperative movement better than other Alliance leaders.

(331)  In the words of a modern monetary specialist, the sub-treasury plan was "a very subtle mechanism" which "simultaneously would have contended with the problems of financing cooperatives, the seasonal volatility of basic commodity prices, the scarcity of banking offices in rural areas, the lack of a 'lender of last resort for agriculture, inefficient storage and cross-shipping, the downward stickiness of prices paid by farmers vis-á-vis prices received for crops, and the effects of the secular deflation on farmers' debt burdens, all of which, in a far less comprehensive fashion, were the objects of legislation in the next five decades.  … It would have achieved what its supporters claimed - real income redistribution in favor of 'the producing classes.'"

See "An Economic Appraisal of the Sub-Treasury Plan," by William P Yohe, in Goodwyn, _Democratic Promise_, pp, 571-8

(336)  _American Radicalism, 1865-1901_ (1946), Chester McArthur Destler's colorful portrait of the Populist-Socialist alliance in Chicago in 1894.  It is the finest local treatment of the movement in all of Populist literature.